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Field testing to determine the evaporation rate of brine solutions formed during the membrane treatment of mine-water
Expanded Title:Improvements in membrane processes have made it economical to treat mine water to drinking water quality. Membrane treatment results in brines with 17.5 - 51 g/L total dissolved solids which have to be managed. Evaporation ponds have been the preferred disposal option to date. One of the key factors influencing the design of ponds is the evaporation rate. Textbook evaporation rates for water are readily available, however the high salinity in the brine decreases the real evaporation rate. Field investigations were carried out in order to compare evaporation of synthetic solutions made up to represent various brine concentrations and potable water with three real brines to verify that the synthetic solutions do represent actual brines. Initial results indicated that stratification occurred in the evaporation pans, impacting on the results obtained. The experimental procedure was modified to include daily mixing in the pans. The average salinity factors of synthetic brines were good matches for the real brines, hence synthetic solutions can be used during the design phase of a project in order to determine a salinity factor, prior to the construction of a brine pond. However, while the synthetic brines mimicked real brines in terms of total salinity and total dissolved solids, the salinity factor was influenced by not only the concentration but also the composition of the brine and textbook salinity factors and evaporation rates must be applied with care and backed up by measurements of rates from samples of the specific brine to be evaporated.
Date Published:01/04/2012
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Wastewater Management - Industrial, Mine water - Impact prediction, Mine water - Mine water treatment
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Standard
WRC Report No:1895/1/12
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0250-8
Authors:Dama-Fakir P; Wurster A; Toerien A
Project No:K5/1895
Organizations:Golder Associates (Africa) Pty Ltd
Document Size:1 432 KB
Attachments:EXECUTIVE SUMMARY for 1895.pdf
TABLE OF CONTENTS for 1895.pdf
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