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Evaluation of a South African clinoptilolite for the removal of ammonia-nitrogen from secondary sewage effluent for pollution control
Expanded Title:The current discharge requirement of ammonia-nitrogen in secondary sewage effluent is 10 mg/ℓ. This discharge requirement may be reduced to 6 mg/ℓ in future. It is also experienced at municipal biological treatment plants that it is sometimes difficult to produce treated effluent containing less than 10 mg/ℓ ammonia-nitrogen. Therefore, technologies should be developed that should be able to reduce the ammonia-nitrogen concentration to the desired levels. This project investigated the potential of reducing ammonia-nitrogen via inclusion of a selective ion-exchange system to the existing treatment train. Ammonia-nitrogen can be removed from wastewaters by selective ion-exchange using clinoptilolite, biological nitrification and denitrification, liming to pH 11 followed by air (or steam) stripping, breakpoint chlorination followed by treatment with activated carbon and treatment in algal ponds. Biological nitrification and algal ponds may not be suitable where low temperatures are encountered. Stripping and breakpoint chlorination are considered to be too expensive for the high ammonia-nitrogen concentration levels encountered in secondary effluent. Selective ion-exchange of ammonia-nitrogen using the natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, in the sodium form, which is not very sensitive to temperature fluctuations, and which is a locally occurring mineral, should be a suitable material for ammonia-nitrogen removal from secondary sewage effluent. Knowledge that is lacking in South Africa is the performance of the local clinoptilolites for the removal of ammonia-nitrogen from secondary effluent. This technology could be an effective low cost technology for the final polishing of secondary sewage effluent for ammonia-nitrogen removal to reduce the ammonia-nitrogen concentration to acceptable levels. Thus, the main aim of this investigation is to develop process design criteria and costs for the implementation of a South African clinoptilolite for ammonia-nitrogen removal from secondary effluents for pollution control.
Date Published:01/04/2011
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Wastewater Management - Domestic, Wastewater Management - Sewers, Sanitation - Waterborne sanitation
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Standard
WRC Report No:1658/1/11
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0113-6
Authors:Schoeman JJ; Sekgwela EI; Hallis D
Project No:K5/1658
Organizations:Department of Chemical Engineering University of Pretoria
Document Size:5 298 KB
Attachments:EXECUTIVE SUMMARY for 1658.pdf
TABLE OF CONTENTS for 1658.pdf
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