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Strategic assessment of household on-site water as supplementary resource to potable municipal supply – current trends and future needs
Expanded Title:The nature and extent of HWS-application by individual water users in residential areas impacts on all infrastructure elements of the water supply and waste cycle. Application of a HWS creates an apparent load reduction on piped reticulation systems, treatment works and on water resources. Unfortunately HWS are often neglected during urban and resources planning exercises. A critical question is addressed by this research, "To what extent and in which way could water demand and wastewater flow be influenced by the application of these on-site sources?". This research suggests that broad and extensive application of HWS in a relatively low-density residential area could lead to a reduction of as much as 40% in the AADD. This is a significant fraction and the corresponding impact on the WDS and sewer system could be significant. An upper limit of about 40% reduction in AADD (water saving) was reported after analysis of water use in Cape Town and is also in broad agreement with savings reported elsewhere. A 46% saving was achieved during drought conditions in California and a saving of up to 50% is reported by Hunt et al. (1998) for gardens that are extensively xeriscaped. A reduction of up to 40% in residential water use could thus be expected if HWS were used at all properties to meet outdoor water needs. This statement is based on the assumption that the initial status of users' gardens would be similar to the pre-water restriction state of users.
Date Published:01/03/2011
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Wastewater Management - Domestic
Document Keywords:Ground Water, Grey Water
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Standard
WRC Report No:1819/1/10
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0077-1
Authors:Jacobs HE; Du Plessis JA; Kock J; Loubser C; Wright T
Project Leader:Jacobs HE
Project No:K5/1819
Organizations:Stellenbosch University
Document Size:4 247 KB
Attachments:EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1819.pdf
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