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Water and Wastewater Management in the tanning and leather finishing industry: Natsurv 10 (2nd Edition)
Expanded Title:The main aims of the revision of the NATSURV were to: provide a detailed overview of the tanning and leather finishing industry in South Africa, and its changes since 1980; determine the water consumption and specific water consumption in the industry; determine wastewater generation and typical pollutant loads; and provide recommendations on best practices for the tanning industry. Most of the tanneries visited for this study utilise municipal water. However, the cost of the water differs from municipality to municipality. Some tanneries supplement the municipal water with borehole water or storm water during the rainy season. Retanning and leather finishing tanneries consume less water than full house tanneries because the downstream processes are less water intensive. This is one of the advantages that retanning and leather finishing tanneries enjoy, as they produce less polluted and smaller volumes of wastewater compared to full house tanneries. The range of specific water intake (SWI) for full tanning was 170-550 L/hide (compared to 320-744 L/hide in 1989). A target SWI figure is proposed at 50 – 150 L/hide for wet-blue process stage, 100 – 200 L/hide for dye-house process stages, and 200 – 500 L/hide for total tanning and finishing stages. The effluent from tanneries contains high organic loads (as measured by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and high concentrations of dissolved and suspended solids (as measured by total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS)). It also contains varying levels of sulphates, sulphides, chlorides and chromium, which add to the pollutant load on the environment of the wastewater streams discharged. Municipalities include discharge standards for all of these pollutants in their trade effluent by-laws. The specific pollutant loads generated by the different types and categories of tanning processes varies considerably for the main pollutants found in the wastewater streams (COD, TDS, TSS, sulphates, chlorides and chromium). Data on the quality of the wastewater (effluent) streams at the tanneries that were visited, and that were obtained from the tanneries themselves and from some of the municipalities to which the tanneries discharge their final effluent, are shown in Chapter 6. The specific pollutant loads calculated from this data are also shown, which indicates the considerable variation in ranges. Cleaner production technologies are continuously being researched, developed and applied for the tanning industry. A specific focus area is the reduction of salt loadings used in the processes. A number of recent cleaner production techniques are reported.
Date Published:01/05/2017
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Wastewater Management - Industrial
Document Keywords:Pollution control
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Technical
WRC Report No:TT 713/17
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0881-4
Authors:Swartz CD; Jackson-Moss C; Rowswell RA; Mpofu AB; Welz PJ
Project No:K5/2490
Originator:WRC
Organizations:Chris Swartz Water Utilisation Engineers; International School of Tanning Technology; Tannery Environmental Consulting Services; Cape Peninsula University of Technology
Document Size:1 495 KB
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