about us | careers | terms & conditions | intranet | sitemap | contact us
Skip Navigation Links
Skip Navigation Links
Knowledge Hub
Skip Navigation Links
Skip Navigation Links
Resources & Tools
Skip Navigation Links
Skip Navigation Links
Skip Navigation Links
News & Media
Skip Navigation Links
FET Water
Skip Navigation Links
Skip Navigation Links
Mine Water Atlas
Skip Navigation Links
Login | Register
Go Search
NATSURV 12: Water and Wastewater Management in the Paper and Pulp Industry (Edition 2)
Expanded Title:Twenty-nine paper and pulp mills are operational in South Africa. The bulk of production is performed by the five largest manufacturers, namely Kimberly-Clark, Mondi, Mpact, Sappi and Twinsaver Group. These companies operate 15 mills of which 8 are paper and pulp mills and the remaining five are paper mills. The study included 11 independent tissue manufacturers and three independent packaging material manufacturers in this sector. The big manufacturers, as well as the independent packaging material manufacturers, participated fully in the study. Raw water intake to the manufacturing process is usually derived from a water resource where the abstraction is authorised by the Department of Water and Sanitation, or from the local municipality. The Specific Water Intake (SWI) for the 22 participating sites varied between 3.5 and 76.1 m3/t. For the paper and pulp mills the SWI varied between 11.9 and 76.1 m3/t and for paper mills between 3.5 and 38.8 m3/t. This represented a marked decrease from the 1990 edition which reported 33 - 136 m3/t for paper and pulp mills and between 1 and 49 m3/t for paper mills. Different volumes and quality of wastewater are produced during the manufacturing processes. Effluents are treated via a range of treatment technologies which include clarification, activated sludge, dissolved air floatation and belt presses. The treated effluents are discharged to the receiving environment or reused / recycled to the manufacturing process where technically feasible. The Specific Effluent Volume (SEV) generated varied between 0.08 and 84.5 m3/t. For Paper and Pulp mills the SEV varied between 10.5 and 84.5 m3/t and for Paper mills between 0.08 and 38.2 m3/t. The variations between water intake and effluent generation is a function of a range of factors such as feed material used, technology selection, product produced and the age of the facility. The participating companies listed a range of best practices that have been implemented or are being implemented. These practices generally correspond to the recommendations made in international publications on best environmental practices in the Paper and Pulp industry. Typical BAT principles have been described in the 2nd edition.
Date Published:01/01/2017
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Wastewater Management - Industrial
Document Keywords:Pollution control
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Technical
WRC Report No:TT 704/16
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0859-3
Authors:van der Merwe M; Steytler B; Wille P
Project No:K5/2421
Organizations:Water Group Holdings (Pty) Ltd; Prodromos Technologies (Pty) Ltd
Document Size:5 090 KB
Related Documents:NATSURV 1: Water and wastewater management in the malt brewing industry - (EDITION 2)
NATSURV 17: Water and Wastewater Management in the Iron and Steel Industry (Edition 1)
NATSURV 2: Water and Wastewater Management in the Metal Finishing Industry (Edition 2)
NATSURV 3: Water and Wastewater Management in the Soft Drink Industry (Edition 2)
NATSURV 5: Water and Wastewater Management in the Sorghum Brewing Industry - (EDITION 2)
NATSURV 6 Water and Wastewater Management in the Edible Oil Industry (Edition 2)
NATSURV 7: Water and Wastewater Management in the Red Meat Abattoir Industry (Edition 2)
NATSURV 8: Water and Wastewater Management in the Laundry Industry (Edition 2)
Copyright 2018 - Water Research Commission Designed By: Ceenex