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Evaluation of the pour flush toilets in schools and households
Expanded Title:The Water Research Commission (WRC) appointed Hlathi Development Services to conduct an independent evaluation of the demonstration programme of pour flush toilets implemented by the WRC in selected schools in the Eastern Cape and Limpopo provinces and selected households in Amathole District Municipality (DM) in the Eastern Cape province and Amajuba DM in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province. The initiatives were funded by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Department of Science and Technology. The evaluation of the pour flush toilets was initiated to assess user acceptance and user perceptions of the pour flush sanitation technology in order to determine the best implementation approaches for making this sanitation technology sustainable in South African rural schools and communities. The South African pour flush toilet design emanated from a WRC study, designed for human wastes to be flushed with small quantities of water which is poured into the pedestal pan by hand and the human waste is pushed to the leach pit which is connected to the toilet block. It requires a minimum of 1 litre of water for flushing. The leach pit is small and it does not require deep excavation, this makes it easy to access and empty sludge when the pit is full. The adapted toilet has a pedestal which is similar to that of a conventional waterborne toilet but it does not have a bowl, it is funnel shaped. This technology can meet the needs of households who aspire to have a flush toilet without the cost of full water reticulation, septic tanks or connection to an off-site sewerage system and wastewater treatment works. The water seal blocks unpleasant odours and keep flies out of the toilets; it is safe for use by young children. The primary improvement of a pour flush latrine over dry sanitation systems is that it introduces a water seal between the toilet bowl and the sludge with the result that smells and flies can be eliminated from the user interface. The volume of water used for flushing is only 1 to 2 litres and as a result a simple leach pit is able to disperse the water content. The use of twin leach pits allows for alternate filling and emptying of the accumulated sludge. Because of this seal, one big advantages is that toilets can be built closer to the dwelling or even in the dwelling. Greywater can be used as an alternative water source, as well. The evaluation focused on user acceptance, user perception, impacts of the pilot pour flush toilets on the quality of life for beneficiaries and assessment of the long-term sustainability of the pour flush sanitation technology in rural schools and households. The research methods used included primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary data collection methods included survey questionnaires, interviews and on-site inspections of pilot pour flush toilets.
Date Published:01/08/2016
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Sanitation - On site sanitation, Sanitation - Waterborne sanitation, Sanitation - Hygiene
Document Keywords:Pollution control
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Consultant
WRC Report No:KV 361/16
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0825-8
Authors:Mjoli NP
Project No:K8/1116
Organizations:Hlathi Development Services
Document Size:1 962 KB
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