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Development and testing of an optimization model at selected Eskom sites for an integrated water solution Volume 2: Cooling tower model development
Expanded Title:Volume 1 in this two-volume series focuses on “Integrated Water and Membrane Network Systems”, whilst Volume 2, “Cooling Tower Model Development” is dedicated to cooling water system design that is characterized by multiple cooling towers. A cooling water system, in the context of this investigation, refers to a cooling tower with its associated set of heat exchangers. Volume 2 is premised on the observation that cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous research on cooling water systems has focused mainly on heat exchanger network thus excluding the interaction between heat exchanger network and the cooling towers. This report presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater minimization which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling towers that supply a common set of heat exchangers. The heat exchanger network is synthesized using the mathematical optimization technique. This technique is based on superstructure in which all opportunities for cooling water reuse are explored. The cooling tower model is used to predict the thermal performance of the cooling towers. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the proposed technique. The first case resulted in nonlinear programming (NLP) formulation and the second case yield mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). The nonlinearity in both cases is due to the bilinear terms present in the energy balance constraints. In both cases the cooling towers operating capacity were debottlenecked without compromising the heat duties.
Date Published:07/07/2016
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Water Resource Management/IWRM - Water Governance
Document Keywords:Governance, Guidelines, Water Quality
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Standard
WRC Report No:2289/2/16
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0818-0
Authors:Gololo V; Majozi T
Project No:K5/2289
Originator:WRC
Organizations:University of the Witwatersrand
Document Size:829 KB
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