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Evaluation of integrated algae pond systems for municipal wastewater treatment
Expanded Title:This report focusses on the IAPS bioprocess, design, component processes and operation, compliance, incorporation of tertiary treatment components, factors affecting the technology, and downstream valorization of the end products. Where necessary, aspects of IAPS technology that impact greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change have been addressed by life cycle assessment (LCA). Taken together, it is concluded that; • IAPS is a contemporary wastewater treatment technology that is being intensively studied worldwide and at the water-energy-food nexus for CO2 sequestration and to derive possible substitutes for fossil fuels; • Modelling of the kinetic parameters of the Belmont Valley WWTW pilot-scale IAPS advanced facultative pond (AFP)-coupled in-pond digester (IPD) and high rate algae oxidation pond (HRAOP) components confirmed that both organic and hydraulic loading was commensurate with the original design specifications for a 500 person equivalent (PE) system; • IAPS-treated water complies with the general limit values for either irrigation or discharge into a water resource that is not a listed water resource for volumes up to 2 Mℓ of treated wastewater on any given day; parameters including chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), and N and P values were within the general limit after tertiary treatment by either a maturation pond series (MPS), slow sand filtration (SSF) or controlled rock filtration (CRF); and, there is no faecal sludge handling; • Large gaps in terms of technology status, design and process operation, and cost of construction exist that can only be addressed following implementation of full-scale commercial systems; • LCA modelling, to map both energy flows and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the Belmont Valley WWTW pilot-scale IAPS treating municipal sewage revealed that an equivalent commercial system would yield -0.16 tonnes CO2·Mℓ-1 of wastewater treated indicating a technology with an ability to mitigate climate change; • Products from the 500 PE Belmont Valley WWTW pilot-scale IAPS treating municipal wastewater include water for re-cycle and re-use (~28 Mℓ·y-1), methane-rich biogas (~1880 kgCH4·y-1equivalent to 26 MW or, ~55 kWh.PE-1.y-1), and biomass (>3 tonnes DW·y-1).
Date Published:01/01/2016
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Wastewater Management - Industrial, Wastewater Management - Sewers
Document Keywords:Municipality
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Technical
WRC Report No:TT 649/15
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0732-9
Authors:Cowan AK; Mambo PM; Westensee DK; Render DS
Project No:K5/2123
Originator:WRC
Organizations:Rhodes University
Document Size:8 143 KB
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