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Direct reclamation of municipal wastewater for drinking purposes Volume 1: Guidance on monitoring, management and communication of water quality
Expanded Title:Water scarcity is recognized as a major challenge for countries on a world-wide basis in their endeavour towards sustainable life for humankind and the environment. This has become as widely a discussion point as the challenges posed by sustainable energy supply. According to Lazarova et al. (2013), by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world population could be under water-stress conditions. Existing water sources are increasingly coming under stress due to growing water demand on a global scale. Water resource managers and planners are forced to look at other, unconventional water sources such as desalination (of seawater and brackish groundwater), water reuse and rainwater harvesting. Water reuse has become an attractive option for water augmentation due to improvement in efficiency of treatment processes, reduced costs and the fact that this water source is readily available and in close proximity to the point of application. The most important drivers for water reuse are rapid population growth, urbanization and unpredictability of conventional water source sustainability (due to climate change and source pollution). In South Africa, there has also been a lot of interest recently in direct water reclamation (direct potable reuse), for a number of reasons. Being an arid region, southern Africa faces serious challenges with availability of conventional water sources. Already the effects of prolonged droughts in the sub-continent are evident, necessitating the implementation of contingency plans in the short term, and the rethinking of the water supply systems in the medium and long term. The shortage of available water in the region is leading to large-scale interest in and application of water reclamation and reuse of wastewater as alternative water supply sources to sustain development and economic growth in the region. Water reclamation plants that have been constructed as a result of this water shortage include: Beaufort West (direct potable reuse (DPR)), George (indirect potable reuse (IPR)) and Mossel Bay (reuse for industrial purposes). Direct potable reuse options in Durban (eThekwini Municipality),Port Elizabeth, Cape Town and Hermanus are at an advanced planning stage. In this regard, water reuse for potable purposes involves the reclamation of wastewater for drinking purposes after it has been extensively treated by a number of treatment processes to produce water that is safe for human consumption and human use. Direct w a t e r reuse involves the reuse of treated wastewater or effluent by direct transfer from the site where it was produced, to the site of the new or different beneficial application, whereas indirect water reuse comprises the reuse of treated wastewater from a surface water or groundwater body where it was discharged to with the intention of reuse, before being abstracted for reuse at a new or different site of beneficial application.
Date Published:01/10/2015
Document Type:Research Report
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Technical
WRC Report No:TT 641/15
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0709-1
Authors:Swartz CD; Genthe B; Menge JG; Coomans CJ; Offringa G
Project No:K5/2212
Organizations:Chris Swartz Water Utilisation Engineers; CSIR; GO Water Management, Somerset West; InReWaSol Windhoek
Document Size:1 474 KB
Attachments:Appendix B Database of reuse potential.xlsx
Appendix C Summary of WQ guidelines for potable reuse.xlsx
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