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Guidelines for the Selection and Use of Appropriate Home Water-Treatment Systems by Rural Households
Expanded Title:A number of home water-treatment systems (HWTSs) are being used internationally by rural communities without access to potable water services. These HWTSs vary from the simplest, such as using cloth as filter, to the most sophisticated systems treating greywater to potable standards. Although various devices have been reported on extensively in the literature, little is known locally about the existing options and little has been done to assist local communities in making informed choices on whether a specific device should be selected. This project therefore aimed to evaluate HWTDs for local application and provide guidelines for the selection and use of appropriate HWTSs by rural households. Devices were then selected according to their water-treatment efficiency, local accessibility and availability of materials used in their design, their ease of construction and robustness, their ease of operation and maintenance, and their cost. An ideal rural HWTS should be able to provide water compliant with the prevailing South African National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (SANS 241) over extended periods, and produce at least 25 ℓ of safe drinking water per person per day. The social acceptability of the two HWTSs that had produced safe water (SIPP and BSF-Z) was explored residents of a rural village, in partnership with the project team. Most of the residents (93%) had never used any water-purification devices, but found the SIPP and BSF-Z convenient. However, while most participants thought the HWTSs were useful, many found them complicated to operate and/or risky to handle, and were afraid of breaking the devices (e.g. during cleaning). Neither of the HWTSs tested in the village was seen as being better than the other. The project demonstrated that HWTSs would be welcomed by rural households as long as they are not too much trouble to operate and maintain, and provided that they are affordable to the users. The SIPP produced reliable water quality but not enough quantity, and the BSF-Z produced a higher quantity of safe water than the SIPP, but required more knowledge in order to care for it.
Date Published:01/12/2013
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Drinking water - Water supply
Document Keywords:Water Quality
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Technical
WRC Report No:TT 580/13
ISBN No:978-1-4315-0489-2
Authors:Momba MNB; Mwabi JK; Mamba BB; Brouckaert B; Swartz CD; Offringa G; Rugimbane RO
Project No:K5/1884
Originator:WRC
Organizations:Tshwane University of Technology; Chris Swartz Water Utilisation Engineers; GO Water Management, Somerset West
Document Size:2 842 KB
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