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User Acceptance and Functioning of Mobile Communal Sanitation Facilities in Informal Settlements of South Africa
Expanded Title:Zero valent nano-iron, zeolites, ordered mesoporous carbons, electro-deionization, an electrohydraulic discharge reactor, and chemical vapour deposition were investigated and each was found to show great potential as an effective means to treat industrial wastes such as AMD and brine. The full project report details experimental work ascertaining the effectiveness of integrating selected nanomaterials into six different remediation strategies for the treatment of model and real contaminated water samples. The waters included acid mine drainage (AMD) from Gauteng and Mpumalanga, industrial brine effluents, dyes, and bacteria-laden water. Clays and zeolites underwent mild activation steps and were then shown to be effective in removal of ammonia and salinity from solutions. Zero valent nano-iron successfully treated mine water, and a one step process (where the mine water is the source of iron) was the most effective option. Ordered mesoporous carbons were very effective as mercury sorbents after being modified with suitable functional groups. An electro-deionization cell was implemented as an effective system for removal of up to 1500 ppm of the major cations from industrial brine. Model solutions and industrial brines were used to explore the exchange capacity of new membranes for their applicability in brine purification. An electrohydraulic discharge reactor incorporating supported titanium dioxide nanofibres was shown to demineralise dyes, and disinfect Escherichia coli spiked waters. The work has been patented. Lastly, a chemical vapour deposition method was used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The silver nanoparticles deposited on the titanium dioxide acted as electron acceptors, enhancing the charge separation of the electrons and holes, and that led to a transfer of the trapped electrons to the adsorbed oxygen during UV radiation.
Date Published:12/01/2012
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Drinking water - Water treatment
Document Keywords:Urban and Peri-Urban, Water Quality
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Standard
WRC Report No:2017/1/12
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0315-4
ISBN Set No:978-1-431-0316-41
Authors:Lagardien A; Muanda C; Benjamin A
Project Leader:A Lagardien
Project No:WRC Report No. 2017
Organizations:Community water supply and sanitation unit Cape Peninsula University of Technology
Document Size:2 582 KB
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